An obstetric lesion of the plexus brachialis can occur in the course of a natural birth. Risk factors are a high birthweight of more than 4,000g, a prolonged birth process or a forceps delivery. In total, around 1-5 children are affected per 1,000 births.
A stretching, rupture, or tearing-out of the nerves from the spinal canal can occur in the context of these injuries. Depending on the extent of the injury, an operation on the nerves is necessary. If the nerves have been stretched, they are neurolysed in the framework of a microsurgical operation – the pressure on the nerve cord is relieved by scar tissue. If nerve cords have been torn, the gaps that arise can be bridged with nerve transplants. In the event of nerves being torn out of the spinal cord, a nerve fibre transfer from other nerves is necessary. An operation on the brachial neuroplexus is not necessary with all infants. An experienced clinical examination is required, however, for the indication of a conservative procedure and/or of the operation.